Abbreviations Used in All the Recipes
                                                                 

Useful Substitutions
1 tsp. baking powder = 1/4 tsp. baking soda + 1/2 tsp. cream tartar + 1/4 tsp. cornstarch

1 tsp. baking powder = 1/3 tsp. baking soda + 1/2 tsp. cream tartar

1 cup butter = 1 cup shortening + 1/2 tsp. salt

1 tbsp. oil = 1 tbsp. melted shortening (or lard)

1 cup corn syrup = 1 cup honey = 1 cup sugar + 1/2 cup of the liquid used in the recipe

1 cup buttermilk = 1 cup milk + 1 tbsp. vinegar (or lemon juice)

1 cup nonfat milk = 1/3 cup nonfat dry milk + 1 cup water

1 cup whole milk = 1/3 cup nonfat dry milk + 1 cup water + 2 tbsp. melted butter

1 cup whole milk = 1/2 cup evaporated milk + 1/2 cup water

1 cup sugar = 1 cup corn syrup (decrease recipe liquid by 1/4 cup)

1 cup sugar = 1 cup honey (decrease recipe liquid by 1/4 cup)

1 oz. unsweetened chocolate = 3 tbsp. cocoa + 1 tbsp. shortening

Baking Soda and Baking Powder

Baking soda is pure sodium bicarbonate.
Baking powder is baking soda plus cream of tartar plus a starch (such as corn starch).

If you need to, you may use baking powder in place of baking soda in a recipe but you can NOT use baking soda in place of baking powder in a recipe.

Recipe for Baking Powder

1 tsp. baking powder = 1/4 tsp. baking soda + 1/2 tsp. cream tartar + 1/4 tsp. cornstarch

1 tsp. baking powder = 1/3 tsp. baking soda + 1/2 tsp. cream tartar (no cornstarch)

When the cream of tartar is combined with the baking soda a chemical reaction takes place and the shelf life of the resulting baking powder is only a few months. Therefore it is best to make just enough baking powder when you need it so that it will always be fresh and very active.





Instant Nonfat Dry Milk

The flavor and texture of instant nonfat dry milk can be improved by mixing it with the proper quantity of very hot water and then chilling it overnight in the refrigerator. This gives the powder a chance to completely dissolve and blend with the water.

The flavor of instant milk can be further enhanced by adding approximately 12 ounces of normal milk (whole milk or condensed milk or evaporated milk) to approximately one-gallon of the chilled powdered milk and then mixing it all together thoroughly. In other words, add about 10% real milk to 90% powdered milk to improve its flavor.

Instant nonfat dry powdered milk will retain most of its nutritional value for at least 20 years, if it is stored in a cool and dry environment. However, as it ages it gradually loses its flavor. The flavor of

old powdered milk can be enhanced by mixing it with the proper quantity of

hot water and then adding a little vanilla extract (or a little granulated sugar) and letting it chill for a few hours in the refrigerator before serving. (Note: Another obvious solution would be to add a little chocolate flavoring.)

The gradual decline in the flavor of old powdered milk will not be noticed by most people if it is used as a dry ingredient in a baking recipe instead of drinking it as a beverage.

Electrolyte Beverage
1 quart water, 1/2 tsp. baking soda,
1 tsp. Lite salt or regular ,                                    6 to 10 tsp. granulated sugar or honey

Optional Ingredient: Package of Kool-Aid for color and flavoring.

Mix well. Replaces lost electrolytes due to dehydration (diarrhea, vomiting, excessive sweating, etc.).


Fruit Pectin (Used in jam and jelly recipes)

10 or 12 green, hard, sour apples (not yet ripe)

Do NOT use ripe apples. Do not peel the apples. Cut the apples into quarters. Do not remove the seeds. Place in a large pot and add just enough water to barely cover the apples. Cover the pot and simmer on very low heat until the apples are fully cooked. Stir every twenty-minutes. When the mixture looks like runny applesauce it is done. Place a strainer or colander over another clean pot. Place a clean cloth inside the strainer. Pour the hot applesauce mixture into the cloth covered strainer so it can drip through into the large pot underneath. It will take several hours for the mixture to drain through the clean cloth. The slimy thick liquid in the pot is the fruit pectin. Refrigerate or freeze it until it is needed in a recipe.

Useful Cooking Tips

When available, use shortening to grease baking pans. If you use butter, margarine, or oils, they will be absorbed into the dough more quickly.

If a glass pan is used for baking, reduce the recommended oven temperature by 25 degrees.

Do not use aluminum pots when cooking foods that are high in acids, such as tomatoes. The high acidic foods will interact with the aluminum and introduce unacceptable unusual flavors.

Instant potatoes work well as a thickener for homemade stews.

Vegetables that grow above ground should be boiled with NO cover on the cook pot.

If fresh vegetables need to be soaked, do so BEFORE slicing to retain as much of their nutritional value as possible.

Cut meat across the grain before cooking to make it easier to eat after cooking.



Self-Rising Flour
1 cup flour                                     1/2 tsp. salt                                      1/2 tbsp. baking powder
May be used in any recipe that specifies self-rising flour.

Homemade Bisquick Mix
3 cups flour                                  1/2 cup shortening                          1 tbsp. baking powder
4 tsp. granulated sugar                   1 tsp. salt
Mix everything together and use in any recipe that requires Bisquick Ready Mix.

Homemade Sweetened Condensed Milk
1 cup instant nonfat dry milk        1/3 cup boiling water,
2/3 cup granulated sugar             1/4 cup butter, melted (optional)
                                                        If the optional butter is omitted, then increase the water to 1/2 cup and increase the sugar to 3/4 cup..
Combine all ingredients and mix until smooth. Store this milk in the refrigerator for up to 5 days.

Homemade Sour Cream
1 cup instant nonfat dry milk, 1/2 cup warm water 1 tbsp. vinegar or lemon juice.
Add the dry milk to the warm water in a bowl and stir until completely dissolved. Add the vinegar a few drops at a time and continue stirring. Place in the refrigerator for six-hours and the mixture will thicken.